Biology – Type 2 diabetes

Diabetes is a disease that affects the way the Insulin in the body levers sugar informs of
glucose in the bloodstream. Type 2 diabetes is caused by too much glucose consumption from
the liver in the bloodstream and insulin resistance in the body. People with type 2 diabetes are
advised to consume food rich in carbohydrates but low-fat content. They suffer from various
symptoms such fatigue, headaches, frequent urination and increased thirst (Open University,
2016, p.60-94). It can be controlled by taking food diet with low sugar content. This paper
contains a comprehensive explanation of type 2 diabetes.
Carbohydrates are food diets such as sugars, cellulose, and starch which provide the body
with energy. Another importance of carbs is to provide energy to the nervous system and break
down of fat. Complex carbohydrates are type of food diet that contain vitamins and minerals.
They are contained in food like potatoes, beans, peas and brown rice. This complex carbohydrate
also includes lots of fiber that helps the body to digest food with ease (Taylor, 2013 p.88). Also,
these carbohydrates help to lower the level of cholesterol and level of blood pressure thus
keeping the heart healthy. An example of sugar is glucose and fructose which form a pure sugar
in the body.
Foods diet that contain this sugars include milk, fruit, honey and table sugar simple
sugars in the body while fiber, grains, and starch form kind of food that contain complex
carbohydrates. Fiber a form of carbohydrate stimulates the growth of bacteria’s that are found in
the lower cut that helps in digestion of food materials and reduce constipation in the body.
However, people with type 2 diabetes will suffer from increased blood sugar that is if
they continue consuming a lot of carbohydrates. Also, they are vulnerable to contract other
cardiovascular diseases such as high blood pressure. Another effect is that excess use of this
carbohydrates lender the body cells to secrete a lot of insulin in the body which triggers increase level of blood sugar in the body. Comparing this to a normal person when an individual
consumes too much of carbohydrates will lead to high cholesterol level, high blood pressure,
blood clotting problem and obesity (Ford-Martin & Baker, 2013 p.34-65). The difference
between this two people is that a person with type two diabetes the blood sugar rises but a person
without develops insulin resistance syndrome, and the body releases a hormone that controls and
lowers the blood sugar level in the body.
The general structural difference is that complex carbohydrates such as fiber takes
relatively long time to be broken down due to their complex particles while sugars contain food
materials such as glucose and fructose are absorbed easily thirst (Open University, 2016, p.60-
94). Complex sugars such as starch and sucrose are formed from two sugars bonded together and
must be broken down into glucose molecules which is simple sugar that can be absorbed easily
in the body. Simple sugars such as glucose are easily absorbed from the gut into bloodstream
since they contain small molecules and are soluble. However, complex carbohydrates must be
broken into small particles to form glucose which is absorbed into the blood stream.


Reference list

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Open University, 2016. Science Health: an evidence based approach. Open University.

Ford-Martin, P., & Baker, J. (2013). The everything guide to managing type 2 diabetes: From
diagnosis to diet, all you need to live a healthy, active life with type 2 diabetes. Avon,
MA: Adams Media.

Taylor, R., 2013. Type 2 Diabetes. Diabetes care, 36(4), pp.1047-1055.