# week 2 assignment exploring inferential statistics and their discontents

## Instructions

This is a two part assignment that will be submitted within one document.

Part I
Part I checks your understanding of key concepts from Jackson and Trochim, Donnelly, and Arora.

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1. Jackson even-numbered Chapter exercises (pp. 220-221; 273-275)
2. What are degrees of freedom? How are the calculated?
3. What do inferential statistics allow you to infer?
4. What is the General Linear Model (GLM)? Why does it matter?
5. Compare and contrast parametric and nonparametric statistics. Why and in what types of cases would you use one over the other?
6. Why is it important to pay attention to the assumptions of the statistical test? What are your options if your dependent variable scores are not normally distributed?

Part II
Part II introduces you to a debate in the field of education between those who support Null Hypothesis Significance Testing (NHST) and those who argue that NHST is poorly suited to most of the questions educators are interested in. Jackson (2012) and Trochim, Donnelly, and Arora (2016) pretty much follow this model. Northcentral follows it. But, as the authors of the readings for Part II argue, using statistical analyses based on this model may yield very misleading results. You may or may not propose a study that uses alternative models of data analysis and presentation of findings (e.g., confidence intervals and effect sizes) or supplements NHST with another model. In any case, by learning about alternatives to NHST, you will better understand it and the culture of the field of education.

1. What does p = .05 mean? What are some misconceptions about the meaning of p =.05? Why are they wrong? Should all research adhere to the p = .05 standard for significance? Why or why not?
2. Compare and contrast the concepts of effect size and statistical significance.
3. What is the difference between a statistically significant result and a clinically or â€œreal worldâ€ significant result? Give examples of both.
4. What is NHST? Describe the assumptions of the model.
5. Describe and explain three criticisms of NHST.
6. Describe and explain two alternatives to NHST. What do their proponents consider to be their advantages?

Support your paper with a minimum of 5 resources. In addition to these specified resources, other appropriate scholarly resources, including older articles, may be included.

Length: 5-7 pages not including title and reference pages
References: Minimum of 5 scholarly resources.

Your paper should demonstrate thoughtful consideration of the ideas and concepts that are presented in the course and provide new thoughts and insights relating directly to this topic. Your paper should reflect scholarly writing and current APA standards. Be sure to adhere to Northcentral University’s Academic Integrity Policy.