Conditions of Learning Well

 Gagne suggested that certain conditions must be present in order for knowledge acquisition, retention, and retrieval to occur. His nine events are intended to describe learning conditions which can then inform a teacher’s ability to unpack a lesson plan/unit. Review p. 222, Table 5.5 in the Shunk text. If you need a little more insight into Gagne’s approach, please access the site, Gagne’s 9 Events of Instruction and Robert Gagne′s nine events of instruction: In addition, this Robert Gagne video link may also be helpful: Gagne’s nine events include aspects of behaviorism and cognitive psychology. Examine each of Gagne’s nine events and consider whether it best illustrates a philosophy from the behaviorist approach or the cognitive approach. In your paper, list the event and justify why you think it best fits a behaviorist or cognitive approach. Then, create one strategy or one classroom practice that illustrates the event. The strategy or practice you create should reflect the principles of the behaviorist or cognitive approach. It is not necessary to apply both approaches to each of the nine steps; apply only one.. Submit a paper which is 3-4 pages in length (no more than 4 pages), excluding the References page. Your paper should be double-spaced and cite at least 2 outside sources in APA format. Your paper should be free from grammar, spelling, and content errors. Be sure that you have properly cited (in APA format) all resources used. References Available: 1. Schunk, D. H. (2012). Learning theories: An educational perspective (6th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson. Read- Ch 3 pp 71-116 & Ch 5 pp 163-227 This portion of the text discusses the main principles, concepts, and applications of behaviorism and the information processing model as these approaches apply to key theories of learning and teaching. 2. Northern Illinois University. (n.d.). Gagne’s 9 Events of Instruction. Retrieved from This document provides an explanation of Gagen′s 9 events of instruction and ways to incorporate them into classroom instruction. 3. Berkeley Lab. (n.d.). Robert Gagne′s nine events of instruction. Retrieved from: This website provides an explanation of Gagne′s 9 events. It includes a linear diagram and examples of how to apply them in some cases. 4. McLeod, Saul. (2018). Jean Piaget′s Theory of Cognitive Development. Simple Psychology. Retrieved from This article introduces Jean Piaget′s theory of Cognitive Development, its basic components, and how it differs from other learning theories. 5. 1. Catio23. (March 3, 2015). Robert Gagne. Retrieved from: 6. Khan Academy. (n.d.) Piaget′s Stages of Cognitive Development. Retrieved from



According to Gagne, learning conditions are imposed by the information processing view of learning and memory (Northern Illinois University, n.d.). He assumes that different learning types exist and that learning requires different types of instructional conditions for them to be effective. Gagne came up with nine events of instructions, which he defines as a set of events external to the learner, which were designed to support the internal processes of learning (Catio23, March 3, 2015). This paper will focus on the nine events of instruction while considering aspects of behaviorism and cognitive psychology. 

The first event in Gagne’s nine events of instruction is to gain the attention of the students. This event requires the instructor to demonstrate the relevance of what they are learning and provide a platform for them to participate in activities by introducing a stimulus that captures their attention. The response that learners demonstrate the following environmental stimulus makes it a behaviorism approach (Schunk, 2012).  Stimulating students with elements of surprise is one strategy that can be used.  The second event is to inform the learner of the course’s objectives, which allows them to understand what is expected and required of them as continuous learning. Describing the criteria for standard performance makes it a cognitive type of approach. Including course objectives on the assessment prompt is a strategy that can be used for the event. The third event is to stimulate recall of prior learning. The learners are guided on ways to process new information and connect the new skills with what they already know, thus making it a type of cognitive approach (McLeod, 2018). The event implemented by relating information from previous courses with current courses and various topics. 

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The fourth event in Gagne’s nine events of instruction is to present the material. It involves presenting the content in different ways, thus making it a behavioral approach. The course content can be presented using lectures, case studies, as well as other teaching aids. The fifth event is providing learning guidance to the learner. The learners are guided on various strategies to go about their learning objectives, making it a behavioral approach. The students can be guided through the use of rubrics. The sixth event is eliciting performance. Under this event, students can practice and apply their new knowledge to demonstrate their understanding level, thus making it a behavioral approach (Schunk, 2012). The strategy used for this event is by using assessments, presentations, and projects.

Providing learners with feedback is the seventh event in Gagne’s nine events of instruction. Here learners are provided with timely feedback on their performances, allowing them to identify their strengths and weaknesses, making it a type of cognitive approach. The event can be done through peer-evaluation and self-evaluation. The eighth event is to assess performance. The learners are evaluated to provide information on their progress, making it a cognitive approach. It can be accomplished through short active learning activities—the ninth and last event in enhancing retention and transfer, which is a cognitive approach. Learners are guided on applying course concepts to real-life situations. The method for implementing this event is through reviewing lessons.

Gagne’s nine instruction events give a clear guideline on the conditions of learning well. Each of the nine events demonstrates the psychological aspects of the behavioral and cognitive approach. They also make it easier to combine external instructions with an internal learning process and memory. 



Catio23. (March 3, 2015). Robert Gagne. Retrieved from:

McLeod, Saul. (2018). Jean Piaget′s Theory of Cognitive Development. Simple Psychology. Retrieved from 

Northern Illinois University. (n.d.). Gagne’s 9 Events of Instruction. Retrieved from  

Schunk, D. H. (2012). Learning theories an educational perspective sixth edition. Pearson.