Outcome-Based Evaluation

Public Administration

complete the following tasks for your course project: Based on the type of program evaluation selected, determine three to five program criteria that you will use for your program evaluation. Provide a rationale for the criteria selected. Related to your program evaluation, identify one possible ethical issue. Discuss the ethical issue comprehensively and discuss its potential impact on the program evaluation process and stakeholders. Discuss practices, you as the program evaluator, can conduct to address the ethical issue and reduce the probability of the issue occurring or having a negative effect on stakeholders. Submission Details: Address the issues in a Microsoft Word document using correct APA format. Save the document as SU_MPA6115_W2_lastname_firstinitial.doc. Submit the document to Submissions Area by the due date assigned.


Public administration refers to the implementation of government policies in different
settings. Currently, public administration is often regarded as involving the responsibility for
determining the government's programs and policies to a community. Notably, it is the
organizing, planning, directing, controlling, and coordinating government operations. It is quite
challenging to determine if a program is effective or meets the intended purpose. Thus, the need
for program evaluation. Program evaluation refers to a systematic approach for collecting and
analyzing data to answer questions about specific programs (Nanda, 2019). The advancement in
technology provides improved evaluation and monitoring data processes during an evaluation.
This increases accuracy and efficiency while minimizing costs, enabling experts to perform
different types of program evaluation at various stages of a project. This case focuses on the
outcome-based evaluation and its application in public administration, focusing more on an
ethical concern associated with this evaluation.
Outcome evaluation, also objective-based evaluation, is used during program or project
implementation. This type of evaluation help individuals to generate data on a project’s
outcomes and to what extent they attribute to the project itself (Nanda, 2019). Typically, it is
crucial to measure the effectiveness and efficiency of a specific program and help find ways to
make it more beneficial in meeting the anticipated benefits and the needs of the targeted
population. Specifically, outcome-based evaluation is implemented when a project has run for
some time to measure the outcomes or results against the set targets. It is usually done in specific
periods, which could be after every three or six months. It answers how much the project has
impacted the target population and establishes the benefits brought by the ongoing program

(Nanda, 2019). It also helps program managers and administrators tell if it meets the original
objectives and the results obtained help increase effectiveness.
Outcome-based evaluation in public administration follows specific criteria where it
provides answers to specific questions. In this case, the criteria seek to find whether the overall
project goals have been achieved, what outside factors contribute to or hinder the desired
outcomes, and if there are unintended changes brought about by the new program. The program
also seeks to find if the population is experiencing short or long-term results. Generally, this
criteria helps program evaluators to identify the benefits bought by a specific government project
to a specific community, and if the changes are transforming the community as intended. It
would also help determine and evaluate whether the program will meet the desired short and
long-term goals.
Ethical Issue
The outcome-based program evaluation process is effective in determining if a project is
bringing the intended outcomes. Nonetheless, individuals using this process meet various ethical
issues that may affect the results of the evaluation, influencing how people view an ongoing
program. Ethical issues can arise at any stage of project development and implementation
(Leviton, 2011). Thus it is crucial to identify any ethical issue or concern and eliminate that
problem. Integrity is one of the ethical concerns experienced in the outcome-based program
evaluation process. This issue involves the need for evaluators and the program leaders to behave
honestly and being transparent about the program to ensure integrity during the evaluation
process. Truthful and open communication between evaluators, project leaders, and other
relevant project stakeholders about the progress, outcomes, and even the project’s limitations
promotes a successful program evaluation process. Nonetheless, some evaluators, leaders, and stakeholders managing a project related to public administration usually hide specific data about
the outcomes, financials, and progress of a project affecting the results of the evaluation process.
Some evaluators show conflicts of interest during evaluation and change the evaluation
plan to avoid assessing some items on the list (Serpa, Firme, and Letichevsky, 2005). Project
managers can also provide fake and inaccurate data regarding a program and its results and
benefits to the community. Some of them refuse to meet the evaluator to hide issues or mistakes
that they made while implementing the project. These issues during program evaluation affect
how the evaluator conducts the evaluation process and the results obtained. More importantly, it
influences the government's decision-making process to enhance or improve the project. It does
not clarify whether the program is essential or beneficial to the community and other
stakeholders involved.
Nevertheless, as the program evaluator, I can implement and adopt various practices to
address the issue of integrity experienced during a program evaluation process to prevent the
issue from occurring or negatively affect the stakeholders. Specifically, I advocate for
communicating truthfully and openly with project managers and stakeholders about the project's
aspects and the evaluation process, including the limitations. Secondly, I would disclose any
conflicts of interest before or during the evaluation and mitigate any issues and conflicts in the
process. Thirdly, I would record and communicate immediately about any changes to the initially
designed evaluation plan, the rationale and potential impacts of those changes to the project and
stakeholders. Also, I would present accurate and transparent evaluation procedures, data, and
findings. Lastly, I would disclose all sources of financial support for both the ongoing project
and the evaluation and communicate and address other issues concerning the activity that are
likely to mislead evaluative information and the conclusions made. Fundamentally, as an evaluator, I should employ ethical practices to assure the accuracy and validity of the results
obtained in an outcome-based program evaluation in public administration.


Leviton, L. C. (2011). Ethics in program evaluation.
Nanda, V. (2019, August 7). The seven types of evaluation you need to know. Atlan | Humans of
Data. https://humansofdata.atlan.com/2017/04/7-types-of-evaluation/
Serpa, C. A., Firme, T. P., & Letichevsky, A. C. (2005). Ethical issues of evaluation practice
within the brazilian political context. Ensaio: avaliação e políticas públicas em Educação,
13(46), 105-114.