respond to 2 classmates posts for psychology course 1



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A group is when two or more people come together that share a common goal. Groups of people are important for social and organizational life; we work in squads, depending on teams, and must frequently evaluate other groups of people to inform our social decisions and behavior Phillips, Slepian, & Hughes, 2018). Kassin, Fein, and Markus (2017) inform us that individuals in groups form communities, pool resources, and share successes. Many groups form because of what each person in the group does and how they relate to each other. Through groups, individuals are able to form a sense of social identity and a need to collaborate with others.

One may wonder how groups stay together. Each individual must have self-control in order to be a part of the group. Obedience to the group authorities and traditions, and the importance of group standards, rituals, and activities associated with purity and decency is how groups are able to stay cohesive (Mooijman, Meindl, Oyserman, Monterosso, Dehghani, Doris, & Graham, 2018). In order for each individual to be obi dent, there has to be a set of norms and rules put in place for group members to follow. The goals of the group must be agreed upon and as change occur all parties of the group must be willing to change. Each group member should understand their role in the group and how each member affects the group. Kassin et al. (2017) suggest that groups who have committed members to the task and have a sense of pride in the group will stay together. To attend to the cohesiveness of a group, this learner would provide the group with counseling and team building strategies. If the group does not have a set of clear goals they would come up with some goals and norms. Another aspect is for each individual to understand what type of person they are and how to work with others around.


Cortland, C. I., Craig, M. A., Shapiro, J. R., Richeson, J. A., Neel, R., & Goldstein, N. J. (2017). Solidarity through shared disadvantage: Highlighting shared experiences of discrimination improves relations between stigmatized groups. Journal Of Personality And Social Psychology, 113(4), 547-567. doi:10.1037/pspi0000100

Kassin, S., Fein, S., & Markus, H. R. (2017). Social Psychology. Boston: CENGAGE Learning.

Mooijman, M., Meindl, P., Oyserman, D., Monterosso, J., Dehghani, M., Doris, J. M., & Graham, J. (2018). Resisting temptation for the good of the group: Binding moral values and the moralization of self-control. Journal Of Personality And Social Psychology, 115(3), 585-599. doi:10.1037/pspp0000149

Phillips, L. T., Slepian, M. L., & Hughes, B. L. (2018). Perceiving groups: The people perception of diversity and hierarchy. Journal Of Personality And Social Psychology, 114(5), 766-785. doi:10.1037/pspi0000120


I think all of us have been a part of a group starting in pre-k to the present. The process of group formation is based on the idea that people want to be a part of a group. For me I know the experience of not being chosen to be a part of a group can be traumatic for some. In our Social Psychology text Kassin (2017), states that groups can vary when it comes to distinct entities such as collective groups.

In collective groups people engage in everyday activities however, they have little direct interaction with each other as cited by Milgram and Toch (1969). They say that there are various reasons as to why people want to become a part of a group. Kassin (2017) states that when people join groups, it is a means of the process of adjustment and socialization taking place. Roles are given for members within the group that can define the behavior that will be displayed.

When it comes to groups staying together, I believe that it would deal with the norms that are being done within the group as well as the culture of the group. For example, there are rules or an agenda that must be given while forming a group. Kassin (2017) writings found that groups can exert strong conformity pressure on individuals who deviate from group norms and perceive or treat members very harshly as an example of how groups can act. Kampmeier and Simon’s (2001) article finds that group formation is a two-component theory.

One group is individuality, which is the self-determination of people and differentiation, which is the distinctiveness. The ”collective self or group formation” can consist of “focusing or concentrating” on the “self-interpretation primarily on a single self-aspect that one shares with other, but not all different, people in relevant social context.” (Kampmeier & Simon, 2001) People within groups should have some form of freedom when it comes to restrictions that can be placed when in a group.

In Garcia, Bacio, Tomlinson, Ladd, and Anderson’s (2015), article talks about another point of group formation; the example they used is of the type of group formation for teens and alcohol prevention. “They found that sex composition of groups can show satisfaction as well as group formation affected by classroom, treatment, and friendship settings.” They found that there is “the frog pond effect “that is when people readily categorize their standing in small groups as “good” or “bad,” “which supersedes large-sample data. To test this explanation, we created a situation in which students learned that their performance ranked 5th or 6th out of 10 persons on a task.” They also concluded that there is a “person fit group” where individuals identify with people that are like them to gain the benefits of fellow group members.

Festinger and Carlsmith’s (1959), Standford University research involved the cognitive dissonance. They state that cognitive dissonance includes an inner development that contains contradictory “attitudes, beliefs or behaviors” whereby feelings of anguish transpires “in one of the above-mentioned incompatible areas which require a need to change.”

Kassin (2017) states that when it comes to the increased cohesion of groups, it is based on forces being pushed within the group to get closer together, which also shows intimacy, unity, and a commitment to group goals. I feel that the way to promote cohesion within groups would be to look at what each person has in common with one another. By doing this, we will recognize the attraction that can develop with each other, which could be an example of how couples can have a personal relationship.


Carless, S. A., & DePaola, C. (2000). The measurement of cohesion in work teams. Small Group

Research, 31(1), 71–88. Effects of sex composition on group process in alcohol prevention groups for teens. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology. Vol. 21, No. 4, 275-283

Garcia, T., Bacio, G.A., Tomlinson, K., Ladd, B.O., & Anderson, K. (2015)

Kampmeier, C. & Simon, B. (2001). Individuality and group formation: The role of

independence and differentiation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Vol. 81, No 3, 448-462

Kassin, S., Fein, S., & Markus, H.R. (2017) Social Psychology, 10th edition. Cengage Learning: Boston, M.A.