The Integration of Animals to Humans

Cloning and its processes related to animals and humans

 I′ve prepared an outline for the paper, and I have also begun the paper. The time limit and other assignments I have to complete are catching up to me. I really need and would appreciate some help.
The subject: Cellular biology, specifically cloning. the number of cited resources; “3 recent citations/articles published in a reputable journal (Science, Cell, Nature, etc) within the last 3 years.” the citation format: apa. And, its a term paper


Cloning for Transplant:The Integration of Animals to Humans

Cloning is one of the most distinctive and recognizable biological procedures used in the modern world. It is defined as the production of a new colony of cells, identical to the previous cell; most times referred to as the parent cell (Wright, 2018). This method can be recognized either naturally or artificially; cloning in nature can take place asexually, with no inclusion of other gametes (sex cell) or change in the number of chromosomes with a mate. They are seen in most bacteria and organisms like starfish.  Cloning can include genes, cells and tissue, organism, or a replication of the “parent.” An important aspect of cloning is to study diseases and mutations. Regarding animals, this is key in the advancement of zoonotic research. The layout of gene cloning had been solely based upon smaller aspects, like bacterial generation and diseases (Wright, 2018).Cell regeneration forms part of the cloning process as replication of cells denotes and exemplifies cloning. Applications increased to expand into different species and conduct tests that would benefit the human race and existence. It is noteworthy that cloning in its broad common usage, is used to denote the production or creation of a copy of a cell or organism. It refers to the use of scientific methods to create an identical gene, cell or organism. As noted earlier, the naturally occurring production of identical organisms and cells doe s not count as cloning in its strict sense (Burgstaller & Brem, 2017).The birth of identical twins is not regarded as cloning per se since it occurs naturally through mitosis. Asexual reproduction in eukaryotic organisms or cells results in identifying genes, and the same is utilized in the production of such genes for medical research and medical purposes. 

Since 1979, scientists have embarked on intensive research to produce clones of mammals and other organisms, with the first cloned mouse being produced in this year. Consequently, through gene fusion, scientists have produced clones of the doll sheep, cats, deer and cows, among other animals (Hryhorowicz et al., 2017).Cloning was the invention of the 20th century, and the same was carried over to the 21st century with the optimism of cloning human beings. Many scientists have made attempts to produce artificially identical human beings, but the same remains fictional to this day. There has not been a successful clone of human beings. There are three scientific ways through which cloning is achieved in the scientific world, including reproduction, therapeutic and gene cloning. Further, the integration of animals to human beings through cloning, which is specifically done for transplant, is essential in the scientific research of cloning and the entire concept of cloning. Lastly, pigs have been used in cross-species research, also isolating organs for transplants. 

Overview of Genetics 

Genetics is the study of how traits in the form of genes are passed down from parents to offspring. Genetics is an important element in science as it involves the study of the smallest units of a cell, which define and dictate the passage of traits from one organism to another. Genetics is shown as the causative agent of most of the disorders happening in human beings. Specifically, 80% of the disorders in human beings are caused by genetic disorders in the offspring or inherited from the parents to the offspring (Shunmoogam et al., 2018). The study of the formation of genes and genetics, in general, is important in the identification of disorders occurring in human beings and the overall minimization of the chances and probability of a parent handing over or passing undesirable traits to the offspring. In 2003, the study of the entire genes forming the human anatomy was finalized, thus leading to the reclassification of diseases and disorders in accordance with the genes causing the same. For instance,cancer’s causative agent is characterized by the replication of cells in an abnormal way, thus creating growths and tumours. This can only be explained by a close study of genetics.The study of genetics leads to the idea and concept of cloning, which involves the replication of genes to form a copy of the original organism. 

Additionally, genetics has enabled the creation and establishment of medicine and tissue culture, which is used for medicinal purposes in the treatment of diseases and eradication of disorders in both human beings and animals. The production of essential elements in the body of a human being is done in the eukaryotic cells of bacteria through stimulation of such bacteria to produce the useful hormones and enzymes, which are then utilized in curing defects in human beings or animals (Shunmoogam et al., 2018).For instance, people suffering from Mellitus diabetes are assessed as having low levels of insulin in their blood and bacteria is used to produce insulinas culture, and the same is induced to the system of the human being, thus increasing the amount of insulin and curing diabetes. Therefore, genetics is strategic to the treatment of human and animal diseases. It is also key and critical to cloning, which is used to replicate the hormones or the genes needed for the treatment of many conditions and diseases.Cell molecular changes with the genes therein as they dictate the pattern and traits in a certain organism. Genetics is the pivotal point upon which cloning revolves and the replication of cells (Shunmoogam et al., 2018).The production of vaccines and doses utilizes genetics to determine the cells created and the severity of the weakened attenuated dosage given as vaccine.Cloning and especially genetic cloningis utilized by scientists in the research and production of cells and genes to be used for medicinal purposes. 

Reproductive cloning 

This type of cloning is achievable through the use of reproduction to create identical organisms that are copies of the parent cell or organism. It involves the implantation of a fertilized embryo into an artificial uterus or a natural uterus of the surrogate mother (Ibtisham et al., 2017). The embryo may grow to the fetus in test tubes and artificial uterus, after which it is implanted in the surrogate mother’s uterus. The two cell embryos are divided into two manually and planted in different mothers for normal or full gestation. The resulting organisms will be identical, thus clones from the parent cells from which the somatic cells were taken. 

Reproductive cloning entails the removal of the nucleus in the somatic cell and fusing the somatic cell with an egg cell whose nucleus is also removed through the process of enucleation. Once the somatic cell is inside the egg, the same is stimulated through mild electric waves, which induce the egg to undergo mitosis leading to the formulation of identical embryos that are similar to the original embryo (Assylbek & Azhigenova, 2020). Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) was effectively used in cloning the dolly the sheep in 1996. The use of light visualization has been added to the cloning process to safeguard the egg and prevent accidents that may destroy the egg during enucleation. At this stage, it is worth noting that the use of SCNT endangers the life embryo or resulting fetus, with nearly 80% of the resulting embryos do not grow to maturity during implantation hence its unreliability. Additionally, the process of SCTN was utilized by scientists to create five embryo clones that were allegedly destroyed before full gestation for research purposes. 

Therapeutic cloning

It involves the use of cloned embryos to insert stem cells with no intentions of implanting the embryos in any womb. The genes cultivated cells are identical to a patient, and the same is stimulated to dissociate to the more than two hundred genes in the human body, which are in turn introduced to the body of the patient to replace worn out and damaged cells and tissues. The cells are risk-free and cannot be rejected by the immune system of the patient since they are identical to the patient’s genes and cells (Lishchyna & Malovana, 2020). The cells so produced are usable in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, Alzheimer’s disease, among other diseases in human beings. The developed stem cells may be used for laboratory studies to determine whether certain cells are toxic to embryos and whether such toxicity may bring birth defects. The generation of stem cells from primates has proven to be challenging, with most of the embryos suffering the fate of death before maturity (Lishchyna & Malovana, 2020).Further, human being’s somatic cells have also proven hard to clone as the resulting embryos have defective Y chromosomes and do not function normally as other cells do hence the difficulty in conducting such experiments with human cells. 

Genetic Cloning 

This type of cloning produces copies of genes identical to the parent or stem genes. Gene cloning involves the use of the DNA along the chromosomes to reproduce the identical threads of the genes provided. The genes from a foreign organism are inserted in a vector organism or a carrier such as eukaryotic organisms like bacteria, and the bacteria is simulated to reproduce and multiply the genes in accordance with the sequencing of the parent gene. The gene is replicated and copied many times, thus resulting in many genes identical to the parent gene.The replication of genes through a process known as mutation is responsible for the formulation of tumours and abnormal growths in the human anatomy. It is noteworthy that pigs are commonly used in the cross-species research, also isolating organs for transplants and the same is transplanted to humans. 

A genetic engineer in gene cloning extracts an organism’s DNA and utilizes enzymes to split the DNA through the nucleotides, thus having gene strands. The strands are then mixed with plasmids sand inserted into bacteria which are allowed to grow in colonies for study. The plasmids are then extractable for modifications through the cutting off and insertion of new sequences as per the preference of the genetic engineer (DeWeirdt et al., 2020).Through gene modification, the desired genetic traits are found in the resulting organism which inherits the same and passes the traits down to their offspring. 

Use of cloning

Cloning is responsible for the induction of desirable characteristics or traits in organisms such as plants or animals, resulting in improved yields and benefits to the human race. Genetic engineering is immensely helpful in farming and food production, with plants being cloned and modified to yield more sand withstand harsh climatic conditions(Wright, 2018).Moreover, cloning has been instrumental in laboratory research as it is used in the testing and determination of harmful genes and their effects on childbirth as well as how the same is inherited. Moreover, the use of cloning in the treatment of disorders and diseases cannot be understated (Hryhorowicz et al., 2017)

Introduction of human-to-human organ transplantation

Transplantation of organs in human beings has its history traced to the 20th century when advancements in the technology of treatment were being invented and advanced. Human to human transplantrefers to the transplantation of an organ from a donor human being to a recipient human being (Tuon et al., 2017).The donor is the person who donates or gives out the organ to be utilized in the process. The recipient is the person or patient who will benefit from the donated organ since it will be inserted into their body for replacement of the defective organs. Successfully transplanted organs include the kidney, heart, pancreas, liver andcornea. 

The donor may be alive or dead depending on the type of organ sought and in the event of the liver and the heart, the donor, should be a cadaver. Kidney and cornea can be extracted from a live person and donated to the recipient. Also, the body of a human being is warm and capable of yielding the various partsneeded in the transplanting process 24 hours after death. It is also noteworthy that the scarcity and slow supply of organs for transplant causes 20-30% of thedeaths of people on the waiting list (Bezinover & Saner, 2019). The body of the recipient is supposed to treat the foreign organ as part of the body system incapable of rejection. This accounts for the donation of organs and the use of the same for a patient with an identical blood group or genetic composition to evade organ-rejection. Organ-rejection is triggered by the body of the recipient treating the organ as an antigen hence producing antibodies to counter fight the foreign organ. This is the leading cause of organ-rejection. 

HeLa cell line and stem cells 

Hela cells were discovered by Doctor Grey in 1951, when a cancer patient suffering from cervical cancer visited the hospital. The doctor had tried to collect cells of human beings and storing the same only for the culture to die prematurely. On admission of Henrietta Lacks, an African American woman, Doctor Grey discovered the presence of HeLa cells which were capable of staying live for as long as the doctor needed (Bencherchar et al., 2017).It is unfortunate that Doctor Grey did not seek consent from Henrietta Lacks to culture her cells. She was not compensated for the culture of her cells which culminated in the present day technology. On the part of Doctor Grey since informed consent is a principle underpinning the health sector. This was unethical behavior Hela cells are cancerous cells with abnormal multiplication and abnormal genome composition, which makes the same invulnerable. Hela cells contain 76-80 chromosomes hence different from normal cells, which have forty-six chromosomes. HPV fuses its DNA to the host cells leading to highly mutated cells, which inhibit the suppression of tumours.

Hela cells grow extremely fast, with 24 hours being enough for the mutation to replicate the cells into thousands of cells. This accounts for the suitability of the cells in the study of medicine. The fast growth experienced from Harrieta’s cells was attributable to cancer and syphilis, which allowed fast growth due to a reduced immune system. The cells are immortal, meaning they replicate and divide more and more, building a telomeresafter each cellular layer, thus preventing the cells from ageing (Bencherchar et al., 2017).The HeLa cell line was adopted in immortalizing the cells derived from human beings. This helped scientists and researchers to concentrate on their experiment without referring to and worrying about the viability of the tissue and cells obtained from human beings. This discovery enabled researchers and doctors to preserve human culture for as long as they wished, thus enabling the execution of experiments and analysis through the utilization of HeLa cell line. 

Comparison of Animal and human cloning

Cloning in animals and human beings is differentiated by the occurrence of natural phenomena in the anatomy of human beings, which bars the genetic engineers from switching off a key gene called IGF2R responsible for restraining and suppressing embryo growth. Scientists have argued that the gene cannot be switched off in human beings, thus increasing the chances of survival of the resulting offspring. In animals, the gene is usually switched off by genetic engineers and the switch off accounts for more than 80% of death of the embryos due to ‘large offspring syndrome’. The ‘large offspring syndrome’ has crippled and discouraged cloning in animals as more deaths result at the end of the process. However, in human beings, the cloning process is predicted to be convenient as well as safer as compared to animal cloning since the mortality rate is reduced in human cloning. The discovery that human cloning is safer and convenient compared to animal cloning has elucidated concern in the human race as people fear the path likely to be taken by scientists in cloning humans. 

Moreover, birth deformities in cloned animals are high as compared to that in human clones. For instance, the sheep cloned showed that the offspring were abnormally big and with immense deformities attributable to the switching off of the gene IGF2R. IGF2Rcannot be switched off through the process of imprinting, which ensures the continued longevity of the life of the gene in human cloning (Takeda et al., 2019).The father’s and the mother’s IGF2R are incapable of being switched off hence gives the human cloning process double breaks as compared to animal cloning, which thrives on a single break. A ‘double break’ refers to the double suppression of the abnormal growth in embryo from both the father’s and mother’s IGF2R. Therefore, human cloning is easier than animal cloning since the chances of survival are high in humans due to the unavailability of the ‘double breaks’ that check the growth of the offspring, thus preventing oversized growth.

How we can apply this for current/future research

Cloning is an important factor both in plants and animals as well as in human life as it leads to the creation of genes favorable to the desired traits or characteristics. The use of genetic engineering in the production of vaccines and other medicines to treat disorders in human beings is well established and should be carried to the next level (Takeda et al., 2019).Human cloning’s safety and convenience should also be utilized in the formation of embryos for the extraction of stem cellsfor use in human research and medicinal purposes. Society should move with technology and advancements in science; hence human cloning should be allowed to prevail.The creation of clones for specific functions such as aversion of disasters and the safety of the world. The safety presented by human cloning should be exploited and utilized. 


The salient features of cloning have been espoused, pointing out the general overview of genetics, the various types of cloning, uses of cloning and the difference between human and animal cloning, among other issues. Cloning is utilized in the formation of animal culture and use in the same in the production of vaccines and medicine. The future of cloning is dependent on the ability of society to move with technology and ensure human cloning is allowed.


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