The term global war on terrorism (GWOT) remains fixed in the American lexicon. The Obama Administration, soon after taking office, directed all military and civilian federal agencies to refer to efforts to combat terrorism, particularly in reference to the two primary theatres of operation (Afghanistan and Iraq), as “overseas contingency operations.” For the purposes of clarity and ease of understanding for the learner, the term GWOT is used in this assignment.
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You have been asked, as a recognized homeland security expert in your jurisdiction, to write a memo for your newly elected U.S. senator. She would like to know your thoughts on the following questions.
Using the course materials, textbook, and Web resources, consider the following questions as you write a memo of 750â€“1,000 words to your senator.
- Address the following in 750â€“1,000 words:
- Have the strategies enacted since 2001 clearly articulated the transition from the posture adopted during the Cold War to that required for non-state threats and the conduct of the GWOT?
- Are they clear enough to define roles of organizations that are responsible for homeland security? Have you identified any areas of conflict (potential or actual) between federal agencies’ assignments?
- Several HSPDs assign responsibilities for incident management leadership to federal departments that fall outside of the area of responsibility of the Department of Homeland Security. Do the identified lead departments have a day-to-day HS mission and focus? What challenges may exist when they are called to lead a multidisciplinary response effort if emergency management or HS are not their primary focus?
- State emergency management and homeland security agencies design their response structures to reflect the anticipated organizational hierarchy established in several federal laws and policies (e.g., the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act and HSPD-5). Does current policy guidance support this planning assumption?
- What challenges exist or may emerge as a result of unclear pathways of command, control/coordination, and convergence during disaster or incident response operations?
- Is the new environment supportive and appropriate for an all-hazards concept of homeland security and emergency management, or is it too focused on terrorism?
- Be sure to reference all sources using APA style.
Primary Task Response: Within the Discussion Board area, write 400â€“600 words that respond to the following questions with your thoughts, ideas, and comments. This will be the foundation for future discussions by your classmates. Be substantive and clear, and use examples to reinforce your ideas:
- The U.S. Constitution clearly limits the authority of the federal government. The Stafford Act assigns primacy for disaster management to state and local governments, providing the federal government a supportive role. Is this appropriate for 21st-century risks? Does a terrorist attack require a different relationship and assignment of responsibility?
- The incident command system (ICS) was born from the needs of the wild-land firefighting community. Do you think that it is applicable and useable as it exists for terrorist attacks and hurricanes as well?
- The National Incident Management System (NIMS) established ICS as the incident management model that all jurisdictions in the United States should use. Though the federal government lacks the authority to mandate its use, Congress has repeatedly required that the adoption of NIMS and the use of ICS is a prerequisite for eligibility for all federal homeland security monies. Is this a fair practice?
- The city of New York is the sole jurisdiction in the United States to design its own incident management system (city incident management system or CIMS). The federal government recognizes CIMS as an allowable incident management system under NIMS. Should other jurisdictions be allowed to create their own system or modify ICS to meet their needs as well? What are the benefits, and what might be the negative aspects of a patchwork of various versions of ICS being used across the nation?