Autism Spectrum Disorder

Instructions For the Final Signature Assignment, you will be writing a 5-7 page paper covering one mental health disorder. To fulfill the requirements of the Final Signature Assignment, share the definition of the disorder, the DSM-V code, etiology of the disorder, stigma associated with the disorder, clinical symptoms, treatment recommendations, cultural considerations when diagnosing, and ethical considerations of treatment. ″Autism Spectrum Disorder″ You will need to use five sources to support your academic writing. These sources will need to be peer-reviewed journals or books. Your textbook may count as one source. Websites will not count as a source for this paper. Please note the title page and reference page will not count toward you’re your page length of 5-7 pages. Paper Requirements Length: 5 – 7 pages Double Spaced, 12 point font, 1 inch Margin APA Format



The Definition of Autism Spectrum Disorder

From a medical point of view, autism spectrum disorder, commonly known as ASD, is a
developmental and a neurological disorder that main interferes with behavior and
communication. ASD can affect children and adults of different ages, but it is known as
“developmental disorder” because its symptoms appear between the first and second years of life
(Romanczyk & McEachin, 2016). The majority of patients who have ASD are children who face
problems when processing their sensory information. ASD has a wide variation in terms of
severity of symptoms and types. Besides, ASD can affect children from different economic,
racial, and ethnic groups.

The DSM-V Code

The DSM-V Code for ASD can be obtained from the multiple-axial system. Typically,
the DSM-V Code is a standard guidebook used as a reference for most behavioral and mental
health disorders. Therefore, Autism Spectrum Disorder and other mental health disorders are
listed here. In that regard, the following criteria are used when listing ASD in the DSM-V Code
(Romanczyk & McEachin, 2016). First, the autistic patient is interested in the sensory
environment or cannot adapt easily to non-routine items. Secondly, the autistic patient is
distressed by minor changes or inconsistencies. The patient demonstrates abnormalities in body
language and eye contact. Besides, the DSM-V show that autistic patient portrays difficulties
when adjusting to certain behaviors and other repetitive behaviors.
Etiology of Autism Spectrum Disorder

The etiology of autism spectrum disorder cannot be solely identified because several
factors can cause the disease. Generally, ASD is caused by abnormalities in brain cells, thereby

affecting brain function and structure. Also, a person can have ASD is an immediate family
member is also autistic. ASD is also caused by genetic mutations such as fragile X syndrome and
other genetic conditions (Matson, 2015).
Moreover, children born to old parents are also at risk of suffering autism spectrum
disorder. Low birth weight is another known risk factor that can cause this disorder. Also, a
history of viral infections and metabolic imbalances are some of the causes of ASD. Lastly,
Autism spectrum disorder is also caused by exposure to environmental toxins and other heavy

The Stigma associated with Autism Spectrum Disorder

The stigma of autism spectrum disorder affects patients of autism who are mainly
children. The stigma is extended to parents and caregivers of children with autism. In most cases,
children living with ASD are stigmatized by society. Society view ASD as a source of shame,
annoyance, disappointment, or worse. The stigma also affects parents and may prevent families
from seeking medical assistance and diagnosis for their autistic children (Luiselli, 2014). The
stigma also prevents autistic children from enjoying the quality of life enjoyed by other children.
Besides, people with autism and their parents feel stigmatized because they are isolated in
society. Due to the lack of medical knowledge, some parents think that ASD is contagious, and
they tend to separate autistic children from other children, which prevents them from social

Clinical Symptoms

The clinical symptoms of autism spectrum disorder are measure using sensitive and
advanced technology that examines brain function and structure. A health care provider also
examines it by viewing the behavior of a patient. Clinical symptoms are seen through social

communication and interaction and pattern behavior. A patient with ASD may lack facial
expression and poor eye contact. A child or adult with autism may have despaired or delayed
speech (Heffernan, 2016). The patient also speaks with an abnormal tone. The clinical symptoms
based on pattern behavior include poor coordination when walking and performs repetitive
movements such as hand flapping, spinning, or rocking.
Treatment Recommendations

Currently, autism spectrum disorder has no cured. However, some medications can be
used to manage and control the condition. The first possible treatment recommendation is the use
of behavioral therapies used in other mental conditions such as insomnia, seizures, and
depression. Another treatment is the use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation used to
treat neurodevelopment disorders (Fumi et al., 2019). Besides, communication and behavior
therapies can be used to treat this disorder by addressing behavioral, language, and social
difficulties associated with ASD. Finally, intermittent theta-burst stimulation and low-frequency
repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation can be used to treat ASD because they can influence
therapeutic effects on repetitive behaviors and social functioning.

Cultural Considerations when Diagnosing Autism Spectrum Disorder
Culture has affected ASD diagnosis because families focus on avoiding cultural isolation.
Cultural considerations in diagnosing ASD is common in developed and developing countries.
Most parents do not want to associate children with autism spectrum disorder with the culture.
They even drop cultural names because they don’t know their religion to be stigmatized (Fumi et
al., 2019). Some culture also connects ASD with some religious and cultural believes that
undermine treatment.


Ethical Considerations of Treatment

The ethical consideration of treating ASD should embrace efficacy. The treatment should
also lay downside effects, cost, intrusiveness, and time commitment. These considerations are
paramount in providing health care services to patients of autism. Therefore, when treating
children and adults with autism, health care providers should reframe some dynamics (Luiselli,
2014). The treatment should not undermine the personal capabilities of a patient, and an ethical
and reasonable approach should be used in the procedure to replace “illness” and “disability”



Fumi, M., Shinichiro, N., Takahiro, M., et al. (2019).  Clinical effectiveness of repetitive
transcranial magnetic stimulation treatment in children and adolescents with
neurodevelopmental disorders: A systematic review. Autism, 23(7):1614-1629. Doi:
Heffernan, D. (2016). Sensory Issues for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder. London and
Philadelphia: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
Luiselli, J.K. (2014). Children and Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): Recent
Advances and Innovations in Assessment, Education, and Intervention, 1 st Ed. Oxford:
Oxford University Press.
Matson, J.L. (2015). Handbook of Assessment and Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder
(Autism and Child Psychopathology Series). Springer. DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-27171-
Romanczyk, R, G. & McEachin, J. (2016). Comprehensive Models of Autism Spectrum Disorder
Treatment: Points of Divergence and Convergence, 1 st Ed. Springe.