Chinese Politics and Government

All students must submit a research proposal, which must address one of the questions at the end of each chapter in the textbook (just choose any one question), based on the literature review on the topic under study in this class (at minimum, 15 academic papers or books must be listed), which clearly state: 1) the topic of the paper, 2) the research question, 3) how this research question is generated from the academic debate, 4) why this question is important in the academic field, 5) how you will address this question, and 6) what are major sources of your research paper.  See the term paper guidelines for details. Students are required to read term-paper guidelines at the end of this syllabus, and plagiarism policy. 
I have also attached examples for your reference and the book we have been using.
Select Topic First and send it to me for review. Thank you

Chinese Politics and Government

Topic: The dynamic and concept of Communism in line with factors that contributed to the rise
of Communism in China.
Thesis: Typically, Communism is one of the oldest economic, political, social, and philosophical
ideologies. Mainly, Communism is an ideology that addresses economic equality in the world
via the elimination of private ownership of properties. In the Chinese context, communism
revolution was used to enhance financial balance in China since the year 1949. Karl Marx
initiated the philosophy of Communism to present the idea that capitalism resulted in economic
inequality. The communist revolution in any country existed due to two essential elements. First,
the citizens were emotionally mature and were ready to sacrifice and share the economic wealth
with others. Secondly, the governments were competent, trusted and honest to as a neutral party
that shaped national consensus. Primarily, China possessed both essential elements of
Communism. For example, the Chinese Confucian tradition was used to teach the sharing of
economic wealth through mutual sacrifice. Also, China has a governance tradition that produced
a competent, trusted, and honest governments with the ability to act as neutral arbiters of shaping
national consensus. By understanding the two fundamental elements of Communism, it is
essential to explore factors that contributed to the rise of Communism in China.
The Research Question: What are the origins and the dynamics of Chinese Communism?
Under what conditions did Communism arise and develop? In other words, what key factors
would explain the rise of Communism in the Chinese context? (Textbook, Part 3 Political
The first factor that explains the rise of Communism in China is the Confucian culture or
tradition. Mainly, Confucian tradition is embedded in the philosophy of Confucianism that is

characterized by a system of social and ethical approach. China used this culture to influence
communist elements of theological foundation such as transcendent ideals and social values.
Besides, Confucian culture also played a significant role in Communism in China by initiating
stability in China after a long period of changeover systems of government. Confucian culture
also contributed to the rise of Communism in China via the improvement of civic education via
the establishment of schools and to counter foreign influence. Also, the Sinicisation process
propelled through Confucian tradition allowed China to extend the role of the government
towards the establishment of Communism.
Another underlying cause of Communism in China is the formation of the Communist
Party of China in the year 1921. The party was formed after China faced a series of slow growth
and alliance during the reign Kuomintang of the Chinese Nationalist Party. Thus, the main focus
is to present how the Communist Party of China took over from Kuomintang and spend the
ideology of Communism. Therefore, I am going to use this paper to analyze other factors that
contributed to the rise of Communism in China through communist dynamics and ideologies.

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Importance of the Question in the Academic Field

This question is relevant in the academic field because China has successfully managed
to adapt Communism as a system of government. Apart from China, other countries have also
attempted to change the philosophy of Communism. Therefore, this question will help us to
understand the ideology of Communism in countries that are currently practicing it. The most
successful communist states are China, Vietnam, Cuba, and Laos. Through this question, it is
possible to compare and contrast the system of Communism in line with these states. China is the
most populated country in the world, yet Communism is still thriving. This question helps to
explain how China manages to maintain Communism since the formation of the Chinese

Communist Party in 1921. Thus, the Chinese Communist Party has managed to see the ideas of
Communism because the factors that resulted in Communism were fought for by Chinese leaders
such as Mao Zedong.
Primarily, the rise of Communism in China has governed the country that is the most
populated. Also, the rise of Communism has assisted China to address a complicated economic
situation that allows the country to dominate the world in terms of global economic growth.
Secondly, the rise of Communism in China has allowed the ruling party to evolve the entire
country by creating organizational systems that upgrade the living standards of Chinese Citizens.
Besides, the rise of Communism has resulted in the formation of the Communist Party of China
that uses propaganda as a useful tool for stabilizing the country. Thus, this question is essential in
the academic field because it explains communism evolution in China from the time of Mao
Zedong to the reign of Xi Jinping. It is also necessary because it describes how Communism is
used to solve social and economic issues. With the failure of many countries to achieve
Communism, it is important to explore factors that contributed to the rise of Communism in
China, unlike in Russia, where Communism failed.

How to Address the Question

I am going to address this question by reviewing the Chinese Communist Revolution of
October first 1949. The revolution was led by the chairman of the Communist Party of China,
known as Mao Zedong. By considering the Chinese Communist Revolution, I will understand
how it resulted in the proclamation of the People’s Republic of China.
I will also address this question exploring how policies and action of Kuomintang failed
to result in Communism in China. The failure of the Chinese Nationalist Party created the
Chinese Communist Party that managed to sell the philosophy of Communism to Chinese

citizens. Besides, I will address this question by exploring foreign colonialism and growing
inequality in China. Mainly, China faced external interferences and an alien invasion that
subjected China to colonial pressure. As an attempt to liberate China from foreign invasion,
Communism was the only reliable strategy. Japan made many attacks in China in areas such as
the District of Manchuria to control China. Therefore, the question will be addressed by
considering how the Chinese Opium Wars, unequal treaties, and Boxer Rebellion influenced
China to adopt the philosophy of Communism.
It will be essential to address this question by considering the influence of the Russian
Communist Revolution. The revolution that occurred in Russian in October 1917 influenced
China to adopt Communism through social models. Besides, the Russian revolution assisted
China rule as a governing party and neglected the revolutionary party. It would be very wrong to
address this question without considering the contribution of Marxist-Leninist ideology of
totalism. The approach gave rise to Communism in China by propelling the revolutionary
mobilization of Chinese citizens against exploiters and oppressors.
Overall, I will address this question by exploring the May fourth Movement that
propelled China to declare war on Germany. The humiliation of China by Japan during world
war resulted in the May fourth Movement the fueled China to Communism. Mao Zedong
classifies the May fourth Movement as the birth of Chinese Communism that led in the creation
of the Chinese Bourgeois-Democratic Revolution. By addressing the above factors, the research
question will be correctly answered.

The Major Sources of the Research Paper

A. Vogel. New York: Columbia University Press, 2013.A. Vogel. New York: Columbia University Press, 2013.A. Vogel. New York: Columbia University Press, 2013.A. Vogel. New York: Columbia University Press, 2013.Brødsgaard, K. E. (2018). China’s Communist Party: From Mass to Elite Party. China
Report, 54(4), 385–402.
Brown, J.J. (2017). China is Communist, Dammit! Dawn of the Red Dynasty (1st Ed.). PT.
Badak Merah Semesta.
Brown, K. (2016). CEO, China: The Rise of Xi Jinping. I.B. Tauris.
Callick, R. (2013). The Party Forever: Inside China's Modern Communist Elite. St. Martin's
Christopher A. F. (2015). The Party and the Sage: Communist China's use of quasi-Confucian
rationalizations for one-party dictatorship and imperial ambition. Journal of
Contemporary China, 24(96), 1032-1047. DOI: 10.1080/10670564.2015.1030954.
Dickson, B.J. (2016). The Dictator's Dilemma: The Chinese Communist Party's Strategy for
Survival (1st Ed.). Oxford University Press.
Guo, S. (2019). Chinese Politics and Government: Power, Ideology and Organization (2nd Ed.).
Joshua, K. (2017). A Great Place to Have a War: America in Laos and the Birth of a Military
CIA. Simon & Schuster.
Landry, P. F. (2012). Decentralized authoritarianism in China: The Communist Party’s Control
of Local Elites in the Post-Mao Era. Cambridge University Press.

Loh, C. (2010). Underground Front: The Chinese Communist Party in Hong Kong. Hong Kong
University Press.
McGregor, R. (2012). The Party: The Secret World of China's Communist Rulers. Harper
Michael, A. I. (2012). Making Sense of Proxy Wars: States, Surrogates & the Use of Force.
Potomac Books.
Mulvad, A. (2019). Xiism as a hegemonic project in the making: Sino-communist ideology and
the political economy of China’s rise. Review of International Studies, 45(3), 449-470.
Doi: 10.1017/S0260210518000530.
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Walder, A.G. (2017). China Under Mao: A Revolution Derailed. Harvard University Press.