Geography – TSUNAMI in Japan

ENVS237 Practical 6

Questions – Submit in a word document through Turnitin. For Q1 produce figure and
caption, and for Q2-Q6, write no more than 100 words (~7 lines of typed text).

Q1. (4 marks) Using the image provided below, draw on the 4 and 6 m contours. You should write
an appropriate caption for the figure.

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Figure 1.

For questions 2-6 discuss the physical effects of a tsunami coming ashore in Cairns, and the losses
that would result, for the two scenarios:

Q2. (7 lines, 3 marks) A 3 m run up tsunami at low tide.

The destructive nature of the waves is the primary damage of the tsunamis. This waves with low
tides may not have a great negative impact since they have a lower pressure. It can cause the
damage by two mechanisms: the destructive power that is carried by the large volume of the water
which is having a significant amount of debris. The other tool for destruction is smashing force of
the high-speed water. When the tides are low the water on reaching the offshores, it will increase
the height of the tides hence it will not go for a long distance. Cairns has a flat topography hence the
impact may be less in case of a tsunami

Q3. (7 lines, 3 marks) A 3 m runup tsunami at high tide.
The tsunami waves of this magnitude, may have a lot of impact on the of the impact
is that it will change the seafloor topography. This will hurt the ecosystem on the beneath the water.
Forces will mix the invertebrates such as crustaceans, snails, and worms underwater. The carnies
shopping center has buildings which do not have high floors. The average building has four floors.
The population in the city is linearly disturbed along the roads, and the impact may be not that

much. The city has a significant investment of resources, and some investors whose business are
near the shores may be damaged.

Q4. (7 lines, 3 marks) For the scenario in Question 3, under what conditions would damage be

The topography would be the fast factor that would enhance the damage of the waves on the
Cairns city. If the topography is sloppy, the loss could increase. Also if the city were densely
populated the impact of the tsunami would more catastrophic. The speed of the waves is
another factor that will enhance the damage. The higher the rate of the waves the far the
distance they will move on the dry land hence more damage.

Q5. (7 lines, 3 marks) For the scenario in Question 3, under what conditions would damage be

To minimize the damage, the land near the shoreline of Cairns city should be raised to reduce
the speed of the water. When the water hits the shore, the waves will bounce back hence the
water will not move on to the dry land to cause the damage. The other way of reducing the
harm is being alerted of the tsunami signs. The weather researchers should warn the residents
and the tourist who are near the city in case of tsunami signs. The shore residences and the
tourist when they are alerted they will migrate to the far land area where the tsunami will not

Q6. (7 lines; 4 marks) How would this situation be different should the inundation have been a 3 m
storm surge from a tropical cyclone?

A tropical cyclone is a storm system that rotates rapidly and its characterized by the low-pressure
center, strong wings, spiral arrangement of heavy rains with thunderstorms and low-level
atmosphere. The coastal region is more exposed to the cyclone than the inland areas. Due to heavy
rain associated with a tornado, the damage can be big compared to a tsunami. The torrential rains
will cause floods everywhere in cairn city. The wind swings with high pressure will damage the
buildings movements and any other loose object. The tropical cyclone has a bigger damage than the

two scenarios due to its strong winds and high pressure

In conclusion, a tsunami has been experienced to be of considerable damage. However, the
condition is unavoidable since man has little control over it. The weather forecast department
should always be alert for the signs of the tsunami and tropical cyclone.